mla works cited: other common sources
various sources have multiple means of citation, especially those that appear in various formats: movies, dvds, tv shows, music, published and unpublished interviews, email interviews, published and unpublished conference proceedings. the next section discusses these types of citations, as well as others not covered in the sections on print, periodical, and electronic sources.
use the following format for all sources:
Interviews generally fall into two categories: published and unpublished (personal) print or broadcast interviews, although interviews can also appear in other similar formats, such as in email format or as a web document.
Personal interviews refer to those interviews you conduct yourself. list the interview by the name of the interviewee. include the personal interview descriptor and the date of the interview.
published interviews (print or broadcast)
List the interview by the full name of the interviewee. If the interview name is part of a larger work such as a book, TV show, or movie series, enclose the interview title in quotation marks and place the title of the larger work in italics. if the interview appears as a separate title, put it in italics. for books, include the name of the author or publisher after the book title.
note: if the interview you are citing has no title, add the descriptor interview by (unformatted) after the name of the interviewee and before the name of the interviewer.
interviews published online only
List the interview by the name of the interviewee. If the interview has a title, put it in quotation marks. cite the rest of the entry as you would other unique web content. put the name of the website in italics, provide the name of the publisher (or sponsor), the date of publication and the url.
Note: If the interview you are citing does not have a title, add the descriptor interview by (unformatted) after the name of the interviewee and before the name of the interviewer.
speeches, lectures, or other oral presentations (including presentations at conferences)
begins with the name of the speaker. then, enclose the title of the speech (if any) in quotation marks. follow with the title of the particular conference or meeting and then the name of the organization. name the place and its city (if the name of the city is not in the name of the place). use the descriptor that appropriately expresses the type of presentation (eg, speech, lecture, lecture, keynote, guest lecture, conference presentation).
panel discussions and question and answer sessions
the mla manual makes a distinction between the formal, rehearsed part of a presentation and the informal discussion that often follows. To format an entry for a panel discussion or question and answer session, treat panel members or speakers as authors by including them first. if these people are formally listed as panelists, please indicate this with a comma after their names and the title “panelist(s)”. follow with the title of the discussion, or, if there is no title, a simple description. in the latter case, do not use capital letters in the description. follow this with the title of the conference or event. ends with the date and place.
treat recorded discussions as instances of proper media (eg, if you want to cite a recording of a panel discussion hosted on youtube, cite it the same way you would cite a regular online video).
published conference proceedings
cite conference proceedings published as a book. if the date and place of the conference are not part of the published title, add this information after the title of the published proceedings.
To cite a presentation from published conference proceedings, begin with the name of the presenter. enclose the presentation name in quotation marks. continue with the publication information of the proceedings of the conference.
a painting, sculpture or photograph
provide the name of the artist, the title of the artwork in italics, and the date of composition. Finally, provide the name of the institution that houses the artwork followed by the location of the institution (if the location is not listed in the name of the institution, for example, the art institute of chicago).
If the medium or materials (eg, oil on canvas) are important to the reference, you can include this information at the end of the entry. however, it is not required.
For photographic reproductions of artwork (for example, images of artwork in a book), treat the book or website as a container. remember that for a second container, the title appears first, before the contributors. cite bibliographic information as above followed by the source information in which the photograph appears, including page or reference numbers (plate, figure, etc.).
If you viewed the artwork on the museum’s website, treat the website name as the container and include the website’s publisher and url at the end of the citation. omit the publisher information if it is the same as the website name. note the period after the date below, instead of the comma: this is because the date refers to the painting’s original creation, rather than its publication on the website. therefore, the mla format considers it an “optional element”.
a song or album
music can be quoted in various ways. mainly, this depends on the container from which you accessed the music. citations generally begin with the name of the artist. they may also be listed by composers or performers. otherwise, list songwriter and performer information after the album title. put individual song titles in quotes. album names are in italics. provide the name of the manufacturer of the recording followed by the date of publication.
If information, such as record label or album name, is not available from your source, do not include that information.
films or movies
list movies by title. include the name of the director, the film studio or distributor, and the year of release. if relevant, list the artists’ names after the director’s name.
To emphasize specific artists or directors, begin the citation with the name of the desired artist or director, followed by the appropriate title for that person.
recorded television episodes
cite television episodes recorded as movies (see above). start with the episode name in quotes. follow with the series name in italics. When the title of the collection of recordings is different from the original series (e.g., The Show’s Friends is released on DVD under the title Friends: The Complete Sixth Season), list the title that would help investigators locate the recording. indicate the name of the distributor followed by the date of distribution.
transmit radio or television program
begins with the episode title in quotes. provide the name of the series or program in italics. also include the network name, station call letters followed by the broadcast date and city.
netflix, hulu, google play
Generally, when citing a specific episode, follow the format below.
an entire television series
When citing the entire series of a TV show, use the following format.
a specific performance or aspect of a television program
If you want to emphasize a particular aspect of the program, include that particular information. For example, if you’re writing about a specific character during a certain episode, include the name of the artist and creator.
if you want to emphasize a particular character during program runtime, follow this format.
begins with the episode title in quotes. provide the name of the series in italics. then continue with the mla format as usual.
spoken word albums, such as comedy albums
treat spoken word albums the same as music albums.
digital files (pdf, mp3, jpeg)
determine the type of work to cite (eg, article, image, sound recording) and cite appropriately. End the entry with the name of the digital format (eg, pdf, jpeg file, microsoft word file, mp3). If the work does not follow the traditional citation parameters, please provide the author’s name, the name of the work, the date created, and the location.